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DEHUMANIZATION                         63

It may be said in passing, that the other
nations of Europe who consider themselves more
healthy and sane, have little right to pass judg-
ment upon the Germans, since international
policies, the Treaty of Versailles, the self-seeking
of each nation under the guise of the best interests
of Europe—all these are much to blame for the
unfortunate state of the German people to-day.
It must also be noted that in spite of their
thoroughly unhealthy nature, both Fascism and
Naziism contain some positive values. Among
such we may note the sound criticism of formal
political democracy which is living through a
mortal crisis, in the desire to set up a real cor-
porative or syndical representation, truly repre-
senting the economic and professional interests
of the people, in the elimination of party conflicts
and even in the necessity of a powerful authority
for social reform or the appeal to direct action
arising from popular life, as contrasted with the
indirect action presented in a fictitious party
representation in the sphere of parliament. This
is a transition from formal social realism. That
old socialist, Mussolini, who now cannot bear
the sound of the word, is nevertheless at present
engaged in working out a very radical socialist
programme, and will probably see it realized.
The Socialism of the Nazis is much less certain,
in spite of their retention of the word. This